The 20th century witnessed death and slaughter on an unprecedented scale.
It was the century of the Holocaust and two World Wars; of communists, Nazis, fascists and military dictators who between them killed more than 100 million people.
Listed below are 12 dictators in order of the numbers who died as a result of their rule. When the wars they waged proved unwinnable or unpopular, they were brought to an end by the pressure of public opinion.
***The casualties of conflicts involving the U.S., the UK and France in Korea, Algeria, Vietnam, the Gulf, Afghanistan and Iraq are excluded on the grounds that, though many would view these as unjust colonial wars by ‘imperialist’ powers, they weren’t fought by dictators.